Data Description

This page summarizes information about the selected resource and its origin based on SPASE metadata.

Table of Contents

  1. Product
  2. Repository
  3. Instrument
  4. ObservatoryObservatories
  5. Persons

SPASE version 2.2.0

Numerical Data Product: Pioneer 10 GTT 15-min count rate data

Resource ID
spase://VEPO/NumericalData/Pioneer10/GTT/PT15M Get XML
Name
Pioneer 10 GTT 15-min count rate data
Description

This data set holds 15-min count rates and related parameters for each of 8 sensors or multi-sensor coincidence modes, as obtained from the U.Iowa Geiger Tube Telescope (GTT) experiment flown on Pioneer 10. Single-sensor count rates are from the A (directional fluxes of 5-21 MeV electrons and 30-80 MeV protons, plus omnidirectional fluxes of .GT.21 MeV electrons and .GT.80 MeV protons), B (directional fluxes of 0.55-21 MeV electrons and 6.6-80 MeV protons, plus omnidirectional fluxes of .GT.21 MeV electrons and .GT.80 MeV protons), C (omnidirectional fluxes of .GT.21 MeV electrons and .GT.80 MeV protons), D (omnidirectional fluxes of .GT.31 MeV electrons and .GT.80 MeV protons), and G (directional fluxes of 0.06 MeV electrons plus omnidirectional fluxes of .GT.21 Mev electrons and .GT.25 MeV protons) Geiger tubes. Coincidence mode rates are given for Geiger tube combinations (A,B), (A,B,C) and (D,E,F). The G and (A,B,C) rates are each given multiple times in the 12 rates of each 15-min record. Additional parameters associated with each count rate include numbers of counts contributing to each count rate, the statistical uncertainty in each rate, and others used in U. Iowa's processing and carried along for posterity. These are described in the document identified in the "Information URL." The data were provided to NSSDC on VMS-binary-formatted tapes and were converted to ASCII by GSFC/SPDF in 2009. The data are available in 6-month ASCII files whose sizes range from ~20MB early in the mission to .LT.1MB late in the mission.

Additional information
Iowa SFDU-formatted documentation

U.Iowa-written nssdcftp-resident descriptive document

Readme file at SPDF

Readme with format statement for this ASCII version

Acknowledgement

Drs. James A. Van Allen, the original PI, and Bruce Randall

Contact
Role Person
1. General contact Dr. Bruce A. Randall Get XML
Release date
2010-02-04 00:00:00
Repository
Name
SPDF Get XML
Availability
Online
Access rights
Open
URL
SPDF FTP area
SPDF HTTP area

In CDF via HTTP from SPDF

Format
Text
File size
500 MB
Acknowledgement

Drs. James A. Van Allen, the original PI, and Bruce Randall at U.Iowa, plus GSFC's Space Physics Data Facility

Processing level
Uncalibrated
Instrument
Geiger Tube Telescope Get XML
Measurement type
Energetic particles
Temporal description
Start date
1972-03-03 00:00:00
Stop date
2002-04-27 00:00:00
Note

Coverage is low after the mid-1990's.

Cadence
15 minutes
Observed regions
Heliosphere.Outer

Parameters

Parameter #1

Name
Sensor A count rate
Parameter key
Column_35
Description

Count rate due to directional fluxes of 5-21 MeV electrons and 30-80 MeV protons, plus omnidirectional fluxes of .GT.21 MeV electrons and .GT.80 MeV protons

Cadence
15 minutes
Units
1/sec
Fill value
0
Particle type
Electron
Proton
Quantity
Count rate

Parameter #2

Name
Sensor B count rate
Parameter key
Column_36
Description

Count rate due to directional fluxes of 0.55-21 MeV electrons and 6.6-80 MeV protons, plus omnidirectional fluxes of .GT.21 MeV electrons and .GT.80 MeV protons

Cadence
15 minutes
Units
1/sec
Fill value
0
Particle type
Electron
Proton
Quantity
Count rate

Parameter #3

Name
Sensor C count rate
Parameter key
Column_40
Description

Count rate due to omnidirectional fluxes of .GT.21 MeV electrons and .GT.80 MeV protons

Cadence
15 minutes
Units
1/sec
Fill value
0
Particle type
Electron
Proton
Quantity
Count rate

Parameter #4

Name
Sensor D count rate
Parameter key
Column_41
Description

Count rate due to omnidirectional fluxes of .GT.31 MeV electrons and .GT.80 MeV protons

Cadence
15 minutes
Units
1/sec
Fill value
0
Particle type
Electron
Proton
Quantity
Count rate

Parameter #5

Name
Sensor G count rate
Parameter key
Column_34
Description

Count rate due to directional fluxes of 0.06 MeV electrons plus omnidirectional fluxes of .GT.21 Mev electrons and .GT25 MeV protons. See also columns 37 and 44.

Cadence
15 minutes
Units
1/sec
Fill value
0
Particle type
Electron
Proton
Quantity
Count rate

Parameter #6

Name
Coincidence mode (A,B) count rate
Parameter key
Column_38
Description

(A,B) coincidence mode count rate due to directional fluxes of .GT.21 MeV electrons and .GT.130 MeV protons.

Cadence
15 minutes
Units
1/sec
Fill value
0
Particle type
Electron
Proton
Quantity
Count rate

Parameter #7

Name
Coincidence mode (A,B,C) count rate
Parameter key
Column_39
Description

(A,B,C) coincidence mode count rate due to directional fluxes of .GT.21 MeV electrons and .GT.130 MeV protons. See also columns 42 and 45.

Cadence
15 minutes
Units
1/sec
Fill value
0
Particle type
Electron
Proton
Quantity
Count rate

Parameter #8

Name
Coincidence mode (D,E,F) count rate
Parameter key
Column_43
Description

(D,E,F) coincidence mode count rate due to omnidirectional fluxes of .GT.31 MeV electrons and .GT.150 MeV protons. E and F are Geiger tubes whose individual count rates are not taken.

Cadence
15 minutes
Units
1/sec
Fill value
0
Particle type
Electron
Proton
Quantity
Count rate

Parameter #9

Name
Standard deviations in all count rates
Parameter key
Column_46_through_Column_57
Description

Standard deviations [count rate/SQRT(#points)] in each of the 12 count rates of columns 34-45.

Cadence
15 minutes
Units
1/sec
Structure
Size
12
Description

Standard deviation in the count rates in Columns 34 to 45, respectively

Fill value
0
Particle type
Electron
Proton
Quantity
Count rate
Qualifier
Standard deviation

Parameter #10

Name
Numbers of raw counts in all count rates
Parameter key
Column_94_through_Column_105
Description

Number of raw counts in each of the 12 count rates in columns 34-45

Cadence
15 minutes
Structure
Size
12
Description

numbers of counts in the count rates in Columns 34 to 45, respectively

Fill value
0
Particle type
Electron
Proton
Quantity
Count rate
Qualifier
Standard deviation

Parameter #11

Name
Spacecraft position information
Parameter key
Column_108_through_Column_117
Description

In sequence, data words are: Earth-spacecraft distance, AU; Earth-sun distance, AU; Sun-spacecraft distance, AU; celestial longitude of Earth; celestial longitude of spacecraft; longitude of solar equator + 270; celestial latitude of Earth; celestial latitude of spacecraft; heliographic latitude of spacecraft; heliographic latitude of Earth.

Cadence
15 minutes
Structure
Size
10
Description

Positional parameters for spacecraft and earth

Parameter type
Positional

SPASE version 2.0.0

Instrument: Geiger Tube Telescope

Instrument ID
spase://SMWG/Instrument/Pioneer10/GTT Get XML
Name
Geiger Tube Telescope
Description

This experiment used seven miniature Geiger tubes in three arrays to measure proton and electron fluxes in interplanetary space and in the vicinity of Jupiter. Detector groupings were as follows: (1) a three-element (A, B, and C) differentially shielded telescope, with tube C shielded omnidirectionally and used for background subtraction to provide directional rates such as A-C (5-21 MeV electrons and 30-77.5 MeV protons) and B-C (0.55-21 MeV electrons and 6.6-77.5 MeV protons), (2) a three-element (D, E, and F) triangular array, each element responding to electrons above 31 MeV and protons above 77.5 MeV, and (3) a thin-window tube (G) with a gold-plated elbow as the aperture which admitted scattered electrons above 0.06 MeV while discriminating strongly against protons. Single element and coincidence rates were telemetered from the first two telescopes. The telemetry bit rate prevailing during the Jupiter encounter permitted directional sampling in intervals of about 14 deg of roll about the spin axis. For further details, see Baker and Van Allen, J. Geophys. Res., v. 81, p. 617, 1976.

Additional information
NSSDC's Master Catalog

Information about the Geiger Tube Telescope experiment on the Pioneer 10 mission.

Contact
Role Person
1. Principal investigator Prof. James A. Van Allen Get XML
Release date
2009-05-20 21:10:15
Prior ID
spase://SMWG/Instrument/Pioneer10/JCP
Instrument type
Energetic Particle Instrument
Investigation name
Geiger Tube Telescope on Pioneer 10
Observatory
Pioneer 10 Get XML

SPASE version 2.2.0

Observatory: Pioneer 10

Observatory ID
spase://SMWG/Observatory/Pioneer10 Get XML
Name
Pioneer 10
Alternate name
1972-012A
Pioneer-F
Description

This mission was the first to be sent to the outer solar system and the first to investigate the planet Jupiter, after which it followed an escape trajectory from the solar system. The spacecraft achieved its closest approach to Jupiter on December 3, 1973, when it reached approximately 2.8 Jovian radii (about 200,000 km). As of Jan. 1, 1997 Pioneer 10 was at about 67 AU from the Sun near the ecliptic plane and heading outward from the Sun at 2.6 AU/year and downstream through the heliomagnetosphere towards the tail region and interstellar space. This solar system escape direction is unique because the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft (and the now terminated Pioneer 11 spacecraft mission) are heading in the opposite direction towards the nose of the heliosphere in the upstream direction relative to the inflowing interstellar gas. The spacecraft is heading generally towards the red star Aldebaran, which forms the eye of Taurus (The Bull). The journey over a distance of 68 light years to Aldebaran will require about two million years to complete. Routine tracking and project data processing operatations were terminated on March 31, 1997 for budget reasons. Occasional tracking continued later under support of the Lunar Prospector project at NASA Ames Research Center with retrieval of energetic particle and radio science data. The last successful data acquisitions through NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) occurred on March 3, 2002, the 30th anniversary of Pioneer 10's launch date, and on April 27, 2002. The spacecraft signal was last detected on Jan. 23, 2003 after an uplink was transmitted to turn off the last operational experiment, the Geiger Tube Telescope (GTT), but lock-on to the sub-carrier signal for data downlink was not achieved. No signal at all was detected during a final attempt on Feb. 6-7, 2003. Pioneer Project staff at NASA Ames then concluded that the spacecraft power level had fallen below that needed to power the onboard transmitter, so no further attempts would be made.

The history of the Pioneer 10 tracking status is available from the web site of the former Pioneer Project at the following location:

http://spaceprojects.arc.nasa.gov/Space_Projects/pioneer/PNhome.html

Fifteen experiments were carried to study the interplanetary and planetary magnetic fields; solar wind parameters; cosmic rays; transition region of the heliosphere; neutral hydrogen abundance; distribution, size, mass, flux, and velocity of dust particles; Jovian aurorae; Jovian radio waves; atmosphere of Jupiter and some of its satellites, particularly Io; and to photograph Jupiter and its satellites. Instruments carried for these experiments were magnetometer, plasma analyzer, charged particle detector, ionizing detector, non-imaging telescopes with overlapping fields of view to detect sunlight reflected from passing meteoroids, sealed pressurized cells of argon and nitrogen gas for measuring the penetration of meteoroids, UV photometer, IR radiometer, and an imaging photopolarimeter, which produced photographs and measured polarization. Further scientific information was obtained from the tracking and occultation data.

The spacecraft body was mounted behind a 2.74-m-diameter parabolic dish antenna that was 46 cm deep. The spacecraft structure was a 36-cm-deep flat equipment compartment, the top and bottom being regular hexagons. Its sides were 71 cm long. One side joined a smaller compartment that carried the scientific experiments. The high-gain antenna feed was situated on three struts, which projected forward about 1.2 m. This feed was topped with a medium-gain antenna. A low-gain omnidirectional antenna extended about 0.76 m behind the equipment compartment and was mounted below the high-gain antenna. Power for the spacecraft was obtained by four SNAP-19 radioisotope thermonuclear generators (RTG), which were held about 3 m from the center of the spacecraft by two three-rod trusses 120 deg apart. A third boom extended 6.6 m from the experiment compartment to hold the magnetometer away from the spacecraft. The four RTG's generated about 155 W at launch and decayed to approximately 140 W by the time the spacecraft reached Jupiter, 21 months after launch. There were three reference sensors: a star sensor for Canopus which failed shortly after Jupiter encounter and two sun sensors. Attitude position could be calculated from the reference directions to the earth and the sun, with the known direction to Canopus as a backup. Three pairs of rocket thrusters provided spin-rate control and changed the velocity of the spacecraft, the spin period near the end of the mission being 14.1 seconds. These thrusters could be pulsed or fired steadily by command. The spacecraft was temperature-controlled between minus 23 deg C and plus 38 deg C. A plaque was mounted on the spacecraft body with drawings depicting a man, a woman, and the location of the sun and the earth in our galaxy.

Communications were maintained via (1) the omnidirectional and medium-gain antennas which operated together while connected to one receiver and (2) the high-gain antenna which was connected to another receiver. These receivers could be interchanged by command to provide some redundancy. Two radio transmitters, coupled to two traveling-wave tube amplifiers, produced 8 W at 2292 MHz each. Uplink was accomplished at 2110 MHz, while data transmission downlink was at 2292 MHz. The data were received by NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) at bit rates up to 2048 bps enroute to Jupiter and at 16 bps near end of the mission.

Space experiments mostly continued to operate for planetary or interplanetary measurements until failure or until insufficient spacecraft power from the RTG's was available for operation of all instruments, such that some were turned off permanently and others were cycled on and off in accordance with a power sharing plan implemented in September 1989. The Asteroid/Meteroid Detector failed in December 1973, followed by the Helium Vector Magnetometer (HVM) in November 1975 and the Infrared Radiometer in January 1974. The Meteroid Detector was turned off in October 1980 due to inactive sensors at low temperatures. The spacecraft sun sensors became inoperative in May 1986, and the Imaging Photopolarimeter (IPP) instrument was used to obtain roll phase and spin period information until being turned off in October 1993 to conserve power. The Trapped Radiation Detector (TRD) and Plasma Analyzer (PA) were respectively turned off in November 1993 and September 1995 for the same reason. As of January 1996 the final power cycling plan included part-time operations of the Charged Particle Instrument (CPI), the Cosmic Ray Telescope (CRT), the Geiger Tube Telescope (GTT), and the Ultraviolet Photometer (UV). As of August 2000, only the GTT instrument was still returning data.

Various other spacecraft subsystems also either failed or were turned off for power or other reasons, and an account of these may be of interest for engineering design of long duration deep space missions. The primary antenna feed offset bellows failed sometime in 1976 but a redundant unit was available for use thereafter. The Program Storage and Execution (PSE) subsystem was turned off in September 1989 for power conservation, after which spacecraft maneuvers were performed by ground command sequences. A receiver problem in mid-1992 prevented uplink to the high gain antenna, after which uplink commands could only be sent with 70-meter DSN antennas which also supported the 16 bps downlink. The Backup Line Heater experienced a sticking thermostat operation in March 1993 for 30 days but the problem did not reoccur. Undervoltage Protection Logic was turned off in December 1993 to prevent loss of critical spacecraft systems in the event of a transient undervoltage condition. Duration and Steering Logic (DSL) was turned off in February 1995 to conserve power, after which it was turned on again only for spacecraft maneuvers. RTG power levels are low enough that the spacecraft occasionally relies in part on battery power (accumulated during inactive periods) to run experiments and other systems.

The total mission cost for Pioneer 10 through the 1997 end of official science operations was about 350 million in FY 2001 U.S. dollars. This included about 200 million dollars for pre-launch design and development, and another 150 million for launch, telemetry tracking, mission operations and data analysis. These estimates were provided by the former Pioneer Project at NASA Ames Research Center.

Additional information
NSSDC's Master Catalog

Information about the Pioneer 10 mission

Contact
Role Person
1. Project scientist Dr. Palmer Dyal Get XML
Release date
2010-09-25 03:09:48
Observatory group
Pioneer Spacecraft Series Get XML
Location
Region
Heliosphere.NearEarth

SPASE version 2.2.0

Observatory: Pioneer Spacecraft Series

Observatory ID
spase://SMWG/Observatory/Pioneer Get XML
Name
Pioneer Spacecraft Series
Description

The Pioneer spacecraft were a highly successful series of planetary missions to both inner and outer planets.

Contact
Role Person
1. Metadata contact Jan Merka Get XML
Release date
2009-05-20 20:00:12
Location
Region
Heliosphere

SPASE version 2.2.0

Person: Dr. Bruce A. Randall

Name
Dr. Bruce A. Randall
Organization
University of Iowa
Person ID
spase://SMWG/Person/Bruce.A.Randall Get XML

SPASE version 2.2.0

Person: Ms. Tamara J. Kovalick

Name
Ms. Tamara J. Kovalick
Organization
GSFC-Code 672
Email
Tamara.J.Kovalick@nasa.gov
Phone
+1-301-286-9422
Person ID
spase://SMWG/Person/Tamara.J.Kovalick Get XML
Release date
2010-08-05 17:35:47

SPASE version 2.2.0

Person: Mr. Robert M. Candey

Name
Mr. Robert M. Candey
Organization
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
Address
Code 672, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA
Email
robert.m.candey@nasa.gov
Phone
1-301-286-6707
Person ID
spase://SMWG/Person/Robert.M.Candey Get XML
Release date
2010-08-05 17:35:47

SPASE version 2.2.0

Person: Dr. Robert E. McGuire

Name
Dr. Robert E. McGuire
Organization
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
Address
Code 672, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA
Email
mcguire@mail630.gsfc.nasa.gov
Phone
+1 301 286 7794
Person ID
spase://SMWG/Person/Robert.E.McGuire Get XML
Release date
2010-08-05 17:35:47

SPASE version 2.2.0

Person: Prof. James A. Van Allen

Name
Prof. James A. Van Allen
Organization
deceased - formerly at University of Iowa
Person ID
spase://SMWG/Person/James.A.Van.Allen Get XML
Release date
2010-08-05 17:35:46

SPASE version 2.2.0

Person: Dr. Palmer Dyal

Name
Dr. Palmer Dyal
Organization
Retired - formerly at NASA-ARC
Person ID
spase://SMWG/Person/Palmer.Dyal Get XML
Release date
2010-08-05 17:35:47

SPASE version 2.2.0

Person: Jan Merka

Name
Jan Merka
Organization
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
Address
Code 672, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA
Email
jan.merka@nasa.gov
Phone
+1 301 286 8751
Person ID
spase://SMWG/Person/Jan.Merka Get XML
Release date
2010-08-05 17:35:46

SPASE version 1.3.0

Repository: SPDF

Repository ID
spase://SMWG/Repository/NASA/GSFC/SPDF Get XML
Name
SPDF
Description

Space Physics Data Facility

Additional information
SPDF

Space Physics Data Facility

Contact
Role Person
1. General contact Ms. Tamara J. Kovalick Get XML
2. Technical contact Mr. Robert M. Candey Get XML
3. Project scientist Dr. Robert E. McGuire Get XML
Release date
2008-08-26 21:02:30
Prior IDs
spase://vspo/repository/61
spase://SMWG/Repository/SPDF
Access URL