Data Description

This page summarizes information about the selected resource and its origin based on SPASE metadata.

Table of Contents

  1. Product
  2. Repository
  3. Instrument
  4. ObservatoryObservatories
  5. Persons

SPASE version 2.2.0

Numerical Data Product: Voyager 1 LECP PHA Events in ASCII

Resource ID
spase://VEPO/NumericalData/Voyager1/LECP/PHA Get XML
Name
Voyager 1 LECP PHA Events in ASCII
Alternate name
V1-LECP-PHA
Description

PHA Events, Voyager1, LECP, Uncalibrated

Additional information
Informational Website for Voyager 1 and 2 LECP Instrument

The webpage provides a detailed description of PHA Event files.

Acknowledgement

Please acknowledge the LECP PI (S.M. Krimigis) and the lead LECP CoI (R.B. Decker)

Contact
Role Person
1. Principal investigator Dr. Stamatios M. Krimigis Get XML
2. CoInvestigator Dr. Robert B. Decker Get XML
3. ArchiveSpecialist Lawrence Brown Get XML
Release date
2011-01-09 00:00:00
Expiration date
2100-12-01 00:00:00
Repository
Name
JHU/APL Get XML
Availability
Online
Access rights
Open
URL
Voyager1 PHA Event Data in ASCII Format

PHA Event Data, Voyager1, LECP, Comma Separated Text Files, File Name Template: http://sd-www.jhuapl.edu/VOYAGER/v1_data/v1_pha/V1_PHAEvents_%Y.csv.gz

Format
Text
Encoding
GZIP
Acknowledgement

S.M. Krimigis, JHU/APL

Instrument
Low-Energy Charged Particles (LECP) Get XML
Measurement type
Energetic particles
Temporal description
Start date
1993-01-01 00:00:00
Stop date
2010-12-31 23:59:59
Observed regions
Heliosphere

Parameters

Parameter #1

Name
Packet Creation Time of Event
Parameter key
Epoch
Description

Packet creation time (precise event time is not available) for the PHA Event given in YYYY-DDDTHH:MM:SS.SSS format.

Parameter type
Temporal

Parameter #2

Name
Detector 1/5
Parameter key
Detector 1/5
Description

PHA Height in ADUs in the 1/5 Detector

Units
ADU
Fill value
255
Particle type
Ion
Quantity
Energy

Parameter #3

Name
Detector 2
Parameter key
Detector 2
Description

PHA Height in ADUs in the 2 Detector

Units
ADU
Fill value
255
Particle type
Ion
Quantity
Energy

Parameter #4

Name
Detector 3
Parameter key
Detector 3
Description

PHA Height in ADUs in the 3 Detector

Units
ADU
Fill value
255
Particle type
Ion
Quantity
Energy

Parameter #5

Name
Detector 4
Parameter key
Detector 4
Description

PHA Height in ADUs in the 4 Detector

Units
ADU
Fill value
255
Particle type
Ion
Quantity
Energy

Parameter #6

Name
Sector
Parameter key
Sector
Description

Motor Position

Units
ADU
Fill value
255
Particle type
Ion
Quantity
Energy

SPASE version 2.0.0

Instrument: Low-Energy Charged Particles (LECP)

Instrument ID
spase://SMWG/Instrument/Voyager1/LECP Get XML
Name
Low-Energy Charged Particles (LECP)
Alternate name
LECP
Description

This experiment was designed to study energetic particles in both planetary and interplanetary environments. In the planetary mode, particle sensing occurred with six different solid-state, totally depleted, surface-barrier type detectors. Both coincidence and singles count data were available from two of the detectors. By looking out at a shallow angle from behind the sun shield, measurements were made in regions where particle fluxes were so high as to saturate low-energy detectors. A current mode option was also available for high flux environments. In the interplanetary mode the experiment was equipped with a particle telescope which had solid-state detectors ranging from 2-2450 micrometers in thickness. The telescope consisted of two multi-dE/dx x E systems placed back to back in order to use a common all solid-state active anticoincidence shield. The telescope allowed the identification of protons, alpha particles, and heavier nuclei (Z from 3 to 26) in the range from 0.05 to 30 MeV. The combined dynamic range of all the instruments extended from approximately 1.E-5 to greater than 1.E12 particles/(sq cm-s-sr). The energy range covered extended from approximately 10 keV to greater than 11 MeV for electrons and from approximately 15 keV to greater than or equal to 150 MeV for protons and heavier ions. A stepping motor rotated the array of detectors through eight discrete sectors in 45-deg increments, thus allowing a 360-deg scan. For a description of the experiment see Space Science Reviews, 1977, v. 21, pp. 329-354.

Additional information
NSSDC's Master Catalog

Information about the Low-Energy Charged Particles (LECP) experiment on the Voyager 1 mission.

Contact
Role Person
1. Principal investigator Dr. Stamatios M. Krimigis Get XML
Release date
2009-05-20 21:10:02
Instrument type
Energetic Particle Instrument
Investigation name
Low-Energy Charged Particles (LECP) on Voyager 1
Observatory
Voyager 1 Get XML

SPASE version 2.2.0

Observatory: Voyager 1

Observatory ID
spase://SMWG/Observatory/Voyager1 Get XML
Name
Voyager 1
Alternate name
1977-084A
Mariner Jupiter/Saturn A
Description

Voyager 1 was one of a pair of spacecraft launched to explore the planets of the outer solar system and the interplanetary environment. Each Voyager had as its major objectives at each planet to: (1) investigate the circulation, dynamics, structure, and composition of the planet's atmosphere; (2) characterize the morphology, geology, and physical state of the satellites of the planet; (3) provide improved values for the mass, size, and shape of the planet, its satellites, and any rings; and, (4) determine the magnetic field structure and characterize the composition and distribution of energetic trapped particles and plasma therein.

Spacecraft and Subsystems

Each Voyager consisted of a decahedral bus, 47 cm in height and 1.78 m across from flat to flat. A 3.66 m diameter parabolic high-gain antenna was mounted on top of the bus. The major portion of the science instruments were mounted on a science boom extending out some 2.5 m from the spacecraft. At the end of the science boom was a steerable scan platform on which were mounted the imaging and spectroscopic remote sensing instruments. Also mounted at various distances along the science boom were the plasma and charged particle detectors. The magnetometers were located along a separate boom extending 13 m on the side opposite the science boom. A third boom, extending down and away from the science instruments, held the spacecraft's radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs). Two 10 m whip antennas (used for the plasma wave and planetary radio astronomy investigations) also extended from the spacecraft, each perpendicular to the other. The spacecraft was three-axis spin stabilized to enable long integration times and selective viewing for the instruments mounted on the scan platform.

Power was provided to the spacecraft systems and instruments through the use of three radioisotope thermoelectric generators. The RTGs were assembled in tandem on a deployable boom hinged on an outrigger arrangement of struts attached to the basic structure. Each RTG unit, contained in a beryllium outer case, was 40.6 cm in diameter, 50.8 cm in length, and weighed 39 kg. The RTGs used a radioactive source (Plutonium-238 in the form of plutonium oxide, or PuO2, in this case) which, as it decayed, gave off heat. A bi-metallic thermoelectric device was used to convert the heat to electric power for the spacecraft. The total output of RTGs slowly decreases with time as the radioactive material is expended. Therefore, although the initial output of the RTGs on Voyager was approximately 470 W of 30 V DC power at launch, it had fallen off to approximately 335 W by the beginning of 1997 (about 19.5 years post-launch). As power continues to decrease, power loads on the spacecraft must also decrease. Current estimates (1998) are that increasingly limited instrument operations can be carried out at least until 2020.

Communications were provided through the high-gain antenna with a low-gain antenna for backup. The high-gain antenna supported both X-band and S-band downlink telemetry. Voyager was the first spacecraft to utilize X-band as the primary telemetry link frequency. Data could be stored for later transmission to Earth through the use of an on-board digital tape recorder.

Voyager, because of its distance from Earth and the resulting time-lag for commanding, was designed to operate in a highly-autonomous manner. In order to do this and carry out the complex sequences of spacecraft motions and instrument operations, three interconnected on-board computers were utilized. The Computer Command Subsystem (CCS) was responsible for storing commanding for the other two computers and issuing the commands at set times. The Attitude and Articulation Control Subsystem (AACS) was responsible for controlling spacecraft attitude and motions of the scan platform. The Flight Data Subsystem (FDS) controlled the instruments, including changes in configuration (state) or telemetry rates. All three computers had redundant components to ensure continued operations. The AACS included redundant star trackers and Sun sensors as well.

Message in a Bottle

Each Voyager has mounted to one of the sides of the bus a 12-inch gold-plated copper disk. The disk has recorded on it sounds and images of Earth designed to portray the diversity of life and culture on the planet. Each disk is encased in a protective aluminum jacket along with a cartridge and a needle. Instructions explaining from where the spacecraft originated and how to play the disk are engraved onto the jacket. Electroplated onto a 2 cm area on the cover is also an ultra-pure source of uranium-238 (with a radioactivity of about 0.26 nanocuries and a half-life of 4.51 billion years), allowing the determination of the elapsed time since launch by measuring the amount of daughter elements to remaining U238. The 115 images on the disk were encoded in analog form. The sound selections (including greetings in 55 languages, 35 sounds, natural and man-made, and portions of 27 musical pieces) are designed for playback at 1000 rpm. The Voyagers were not the first spacecraft designed with such messages to the future. Pioneers 10 and 11, LAGEOS, and the Apollo landers also included plaques with a similar intent, though not quite so ambitious.

Mission Profile

Originally planned as a Grand Tour of the outer planets, including dual launches to Jupiter, Saturn, and Pluto in 1976-77 and dual launches to Jupiter, Uranus, and Neptune in 1979, budgetary constraints caused a dramatic rescoping of the project to two spacecraft, each of which would go to only Jupiter and Saturn. The new mission was called Mariner Jupiter/Saturn, or MJS. It was subsequently renamed Voyager about six months prior to launch. The rescoped mission was estimated to cost $250 million (through the end of Saturn operations), only a third of what the Grand Tour design would have cost.

Originally scheduled to launch twelve days after Voyager 2, Voyager 1's launch was delayed twice to prevent the occurrence of problems which Voyager 2 experienced after launch. Voyager 1's launch finally happened on 05 Sept. 1977 and was termed "flawless and accurate".

Although launched sixteen days after Voyager 2, Voyager 1's trajectory was the quicker one to Jupiter. On 15 Dec. 1977, while both spacecraft were in the asteroid belt, Voyager 1 surpassed Voyager 2's distance from the Sun. Voyager 1 then proceeded to Jupiter (making its closest approach on 05 March 1979) and Saturn (with closest approach on 12 Nov. 1980). Both prior to and after planetary encounters observations were made of the interplanetary medium. Some 18,000 images of Jupiter and its satellites were taken by Voyager 1. In addition, roughly 16,000 images of Saturn, its rings and satellites were obtained.

After its encounter with Saturn, Voyager 1 remained relatively quiescent, continuing to make in situ observations of the interplanetary environment and UV observations of stars. After nearly nine years of dormancy, Voyager 1's cameras were once again turned on to take a series of pictures. On 14 Feb. 1990, Voyager 1 looked back from whence it came and took the first "family portrait" of the solar system, a mosaic of 60 frames of the Sun and six of the planets (Venus, Earth, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune) as seen from "outside" the solar system. After this final look back, the cameras on Voyager 1 were once again turned off.

All of the experiments, save the photopolarimeter (which failed to operate), have produced useful data.

Onward and Outward

Rechristened the Voyager Interstellar Mission (VIM) by NASA in 1989 (after Voyager 2's Neptune encounter), Voyager 1 continues operations, taking measurements of the interplanetary magnetic field, plasma, and charged particle environment while searching for the heliopause (the distance at which the solar wind becomes subsumed by the more general interstellar wind). Through the end of the Neptune phase of the Voyager project, a total of $875 million had been expended for the construction, launch, and operations of both Voyager spacecraft. An additional $30 million was allocated for the first two years of VIM.

Voyager 1 is speeding away from the Sun at a velocity of about 3.50 AU/year toward a point in the sky of RA= 262 degrees, Dec=+12 degrees (35.55 degrees ecliptic latitude, 260.78 degrees ecliptic longitude). Late on 17 February 1998, Voyager 1 became the most distant man-made object from the Sun, surpassing the distance of Pioneer 10.

Additional information
NSSDC's Master Catalog

Information about the Voyager 1 mission

Contact
Role Person
1. Project scientist Prof. Edward C. Stone, Jr. Get XML
Release date
2010-09-25 03:09:48
Observatory group
Voyager Spacecraft Get XML
Location
Region
Heliosphere.NearEarth
Heliosphere.Outer

SPASE version 2.2.0

Observatory: Voyager Spacecraft

Observatory ID
spase://SMWG/Observatory/Voyager Get XML
Name
Voyager Spacecraft
Description

Voyager 1 and 2 was a pair of spacecraft launched to explore the planets of the outer solar system and the interplanetary environment. Each Voyager had as its major objectives at each planet to: (1) investigate the circulation, dynamics, structure, and composition of the planet's atmosphere; (2) characterize the morphology, geology, and physical state of the satellites of the planet; (3) provide improved values for the mass, size, and shape of the planet, its satellites, and any rings; and, (4) determine the magnetic field structure and characterize the composition and distribution of energetic trapped particles and plasma therein.

Spacecraft and Subsystems

Each Voyager consisted of a decahedral bus, 47 cm in height and 1.78 m across from flat to flat. A 3.66 m diameter parabolic high-gain antenna was mounted on top of the bus. The major portion of the science instruments were mounted on a science boom extending out some 2.5 m from the spacecraft. At the end of the science boom was a steerable scan platform on which were mounted the imaging and spectroscopic remote sensing instruments. Also mounted at various distances along the science boom were the plasma and charged particle detectors. The magnetometers were located along a separate boom extending 13 m on the side opposite the science boom. A third boom, extending down and away from the science instruments, held the spacecraft's radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs). Two 10 m whip antennas (used for the plasma wave and planetary radio astronomy investigations) also extended from the spacecraft, each perpendicular to the other. The spacecraft was three-axis spin stabilized to enable long integration times and selective viewing for the instruments mounted on the scan platform.

Power was provided to the spacecraft systems and instruments through the use of three radioisotope thermoelectric generators. The RTGs were assembled in tandem on a deployable boom hinged on an outrigger arrangement of struts attached to the basic structure. Each RTG unit, contained in a beryllium outer case, was 40.6 cm in diameter, 50.8 cm in length, and weighed 39 kg. The RTGs used a radioactive source (Plutonium-238 in the form of plutonium oxide, or PuO2, in this case) which, as it decayed, gave off heat. A bi-metallic thermoelectric device was used to convert the heat to electric power for the spacecraft. The total output of RTGs slowly decreases with time as the radioactive material is expended. Therefore, although the initial output of the RTGs on Voyager was approximately 470 W of 30 V DC power at launch, it had fallen off to approximately 335 W by the beginning of 1997 (about 19.5 years post-launch). As power continues to decrease, power loads on the spacecraft must also decrease. Current estimates (1998) are that increasingly limited instrument operations can be carried out at least until 2020.

Communications were provided through the high-gain antenna with a low-gain antenna for backup. The high-gain antenna supported both X-band and S-band downlink telemetry. Voyager was the first spacecraft to utilize X-band as the primary telemetry link frequency. Data could be stored for later transmission to Earth through the use of an on-board digital tape recorder.

Voyager, because of its distance from Earth and the resulting time-lag for commanding, was designed to operate in a highly-autonomous manner. In order to do this and carry out the complex sequences of spacecraft motions and instrument operations, three interconnected on-board computers were utilized. The Computer Command Subsystem (CCS) was responsible for storing commanding for the other two computers and issuing the commands at set times. The Attitude and Articulation Control Subsystem (AACS) was responsible for controlling spacecraft attitude and motions of the scan platform. The Flight Data Subsystem (FDS) controlled the instruments, including changes in configuration (state) or telemetry rates. All three computers had redundant components to ensure continued operations. The AACS included redundant star trackers and Sun sensors as well.

Message in a Bottle

Each Voyager has mounted to one of the sides of the bus a 12-inch gold-plated copper disk. The disk has recorded on it sounds and images of Earth designed to portray the diversity of life and culture on the planet. Each disk is encased in a protective aluminum jacket along with a cartridge and a needle. Instructions explaining from where the spacecraft originated and how to play the disk are engraved onto the jacket. Electroplated onto a 2 cm area on the cover is also an ultra-pure source of uranium-238 (with a radioactivity of about 0.26 nanocuries and a half-life of 4.51 billion years), allowing the determination of the elapsed time since launch by measuring the amount of daughter elements to remaining U238. The 115 images on the disk were encoded in analog form. The sound selections (including greetings in 55 languages, 35 sounds, natural and man-made, and portions of 27 musical pieces) are designed for playback at 1000 rpm. The Voyagers were not the first spacecraft designed with such messages to the future. Pioneers 10 and 11, LAGEOS, and the Apollo landers also included plaques with a similar intent, though not quite so ambitious.

Additional information
NSSDC's Master Catalog

Information about the Voyager 1 mission

NSSDC's Master Catalog

Information about the Voyager 2 mission

Contact
Role Person
1. Project scientist Prof. Edward C. Stone, Jr. Get XML
Release date
2010-09-25 02:38:11
Location
Region
Heliosphere.NearEarth
Heliosphere.Outer

SPASE version 2.2.0

Person: Dr. Stamatios M. Krimigis

Name
Dr. Stamatios M. Krimigis
Organization
Applied Physics Laboratory
Person ID
spase://SMWG/Person/Stamatios.M.Krimigis Get XML

SPASE version 2.2.0

Person: Dr. Robert B. Decker

Name
Dr. Robert B. Decker
Organization
Applied Physics Laboratory
Person ID
spase://SMWG/Person/Robert.B.Decker Get XML

SPASE version 2.2.0

Person: Lawrence Brown

Name
Lawrence Brown
Organization
Applied Physics Laboratory
Email
Lawrence.Brown@jhuapl.edu
Person ID
spase://SMWG/Person/Lawrence.Brown Get XML
Release date
2010-08-05 17:35:47

SPASE version 2.2.0

Person: UNKNOWN

Name
UNKNOWN
Organization
UNKNOWN
Person ID
spase://SMWG/Person/UNKNOWN Get XML
Release date
2010-08-05 17:35:47

SPASE version 2.2.0

Person: Prof. Edward C. Stone, Jr.

Name
Prof. Edward C. Stone, Jr.
Organization
California Institute of Technology
Email
ecs@srl.caltech.edu
Phone
+1 626 395 8321
Person ID
spase://SMWG/Person/Edward.C.Stone.Jr Get XML
Release date
2010-08-05 17:35:46

SPASE version 1.2.0

Repository: JHU/APL

Repository ID
spase://SMWG/Repository/JHU_APL Get XML
Name
JHU/APL
Description
Contact
Role Person
1. General contact UNKNOWN Get XML
Release date
2008-06-18 18:05:57
Access URL